1991-1998 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Engines
+ 4. Heating and ventilation
+ 5. Fuel system
+ 6. Exhaust system
+ 7. Transmissions
+ 8. Coupling and semi-axes
+ 9. Brake system
+ 10. Running gear
+ 11. Body
+ 12. Electric equipment
+ 13. Electroschemes
- 14. Good advice
14.1. Some councils upon car purchase
14.2. Changed numbers
14.3. Purchase of the old car or mysterious set of figures and letters
14.4. Durability of the car
14.5. About parallelism of bridges of the car and the trailer
14.6. Preparation of the car for winter
14.7. It is rather live, than it is dead …
14.8. That it is necessary to know, changing oil
14.9. To owners of the diesel car
14.10. As the conditioner works and what to do, if it failed
14.11. "Machine gun"
14.13. Features of operation of brake system
14.14. To understand, the shock-absorber why is necessary, - try to do a bit of traveling without it …
14.16. Electric motor
The most widespread malfunction in electromotors – isolation breakdown in windings. Let's say you put the car on parking, and to switch off "yard keepers" forgot. It is enough three-four hours, that the winding burned through. Or left a rag in a podkapotny niche where drafts of screen wipers move. The motor gets jammed with the same result for its windings.
Sometimes isolation manages to be restored, having sustained an anchor in bank with engine oil. Slightly warmed-up drying oil gives much bigger effect if to sustain in it an anchor in some stages, doing daily breaks for drying.
The same trouble – winding breakdown – overtakes also the electromotor of a washer of a windscreen. There is it often from a carelessness of the car owner when or the tank with water is empty, or liquid froze, or jets-raspryskivateli or the pump filter are "tightly" hammered, and in the block of safety locks in a chain of the electromotor there is "bug".
In general with safety locks it is better not to joke. It will allow to avoid not only the short circuit terminating sometimes in a fire, but also it is easier to find malfunctions.
For the beginning motorist should be gold governed: it is necessary to begin searches of the reasons of malfunctions of electric equipment with the block of safety locks.
I remember, when I bought the car first in the life, in shop paid attention that the control lamp of a charge of the accumulator burns. The assumption then was born that, should be, or brushes of the generator did not get used yet, or "makes a fool" of a tension regulator (at that time cars were completed with mechanical relays regulators of the Bulgarian production. Happened, they worked on "recharge", and the bulb) lit up. Replacement of the relay regulator of results did not give: the generator simply did not develop energy. Replacement of shchetochny knot too appeared useless.
It was necessary to remove the generator, previously plums from system cooling liquid and having dismantled the thermostat. Check of windings of the generator and "bridge" of diodes showed that everything is all right. Only then, having done all this unnecessary work on absolutely new car, I guessed to glance in the block of safety locks. Certainly. the corresponding safety lock in a chain of excitement of a winding of the generator it was not simple.
So if at you the generator refused, begin check with a safety lock. Let even it is whole, be not too lazy to smooth out a zone of its contact. Only after that undertake directly the generator.
However do not hurry with its dismantling and dismantle. At first check shchetochny knot. Existence of large chips on brushes, their considerable wear or a zamaslivaniye can already serve as a generator cause of failure.
Pay attention to a condition of contact rings of an anchor which are visible in a window into which the shchetochny knot is inserted. Scratches and grooves are deduced by a grinding skin, then are polished. If these operations do not give result, it will be necessary to undertake the vypryamitelny block, previously having disconnected wires from the storage battery and the generator. Check of the block make by means of a control lamp. The negative pole of the battery is deduced on the generator case, positive – through a bulb – on a conclusion "30".
If the bulb lights up, means, the vypryamitelny block is punched and it needs to be changed. There are, however, that прбивает either positive, or negative gates of the block. But it is perhaps better not to press in these subtleties, as separate replacement of gates does not practise.
At last, about a starter. It, perhaps, one of the most durable knots of the car, though "works" it in the severe conditions. Even when the engine, in a starter capitally is under repair, happens, change only brushes and smooth out contact rings.
The weakest place of a starter – the obgonny coupling, or "бендикс": in it, it happens, scatter or there lie persistent rollers. And then at start-up of the engine hum is heard only: the starter rotates, but does not turn a motor flywheel. Washing "бендикса" sometimes helps with kerosene or acetone. But handymen, as a rule, развальцовывают I will embrace with rollers and or change all details of a holder, or carefully them wash out.
Other widespread malfunction is more connected not with a starter, and with oxidation or break of tips of the special wattled tire connecting the engine with a body, that is "weight" (the tire is located under the engine). In this case the starter publishes characteristic clicks or in general "is silent", if, of course, "silence" is not caused by other reason – a detachment plusovy conducting of the relay of a starter. Check is anyway necessary. If relay conductings on a place – undertake the tire. But if conductings nevertheless jumped out, do not try to insert it, without removing a starter – will waste in vain time. The starter should be dismantled.