1991-1998 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Engines
+ 4. Heating and ventilation
+ 5. Fuel system
+ 6. Exhaust system
+ 7. Transmissions
+ 8. Coupling and semi-axes
+ 9. Brake system
+ 10. Running gear
+ 11. Body
+ 12. Electric equipment
+ 13. Electroschemes
- 14. Good advice
14.1. Some councils upon car purchase
14.2. Changed numbers
14.3. Purchase of the old car or mysterious set of figures and letters
14.4. Durability of the car
14.5. About parallelism of bridges of the car and the trailer
14.6. Preparation of the car for winter
14.7. It is rather live, than it is dead …
14.8. That it is necessary to know, changing oil
14.9. To owners of the diesel car
14.10. As the conditioner works and what to do, if it failed
14.11. "Machine gun"
14.13. Features of operation of brake system
14.14. To understand, the shock-absorber why is necessary, - try to do a bit of traveling without it …
14.16. Electric motor
Whether all as it should be with the car engine? Can it is time save money on carrying out computer diagnostics, and even on repair? To answer these questions to you some councils of the autoengineer will help, it is a lot of years engaged in repair of import cars.
Before addressing to the doctor, each of us is engaged in self-diagnostics. Thus we do not do ourselves a rentgenoskopiya, we do not use the electrocardiograph and other sophisticated devices. Simply we feel a forehead, we examine a throat, we listen, whether шкворчит in a breast, whether пучит a stomach, whether корежит a waist. From devices traditionally we use thermometers and, maybe, a watch at pulse measurement.
Here so, simply, we define, whether the organism normally functions. And after all it turns out!
The car engine – the same organism. For its exact diagnosing and treatment there are many cunning devices, adaptations and tools. Various exact techniques and the receptions demanding thin knowledge of the internal device are used. We plan to tell about them in detail in the near future.
For a start we suggest to master simpler for understanding of a thing.
Let's try understand, on what it is necessary to pay attention, maintaining the car: that it is necessary to feel where to look, where to listen and, maybe, even to smell, to understand, how the engine feels. Do not want to study together with us – get from a purse one hundred dollars and go on computer diagnostics. Automobile "medical care" paid!
Present that you the kind doctor. Having entered into chamber (garage), approach to the patient (car), surely greet, tell to it some tender, calming words and suggest to undress to a belt (open a cowl).
Begin with external survey of the engine. Remember that nothing reflects internal wellbeing how pleasant, well-groomed appearance radiating with health.
Strong general impurity of the engine, no less than existence of intensive local leaks, on the contrary, testifies about reeled health. If in the evening, leaving the car, you providently enclosed a blank sheet of the newspaper under the engine, take out it and examine. Leakages of oil and other operational liquids in a night leave traces on which you can establish sources of leaks on the newspaper and define their intensity. The it is higher, the it is rather necessary to take measures for elimination of malfunctions.
The following step – check and finishing to norm of level of all operational liquids. First of all us engine oil and cooling liquid (antifreeze) as their shortcoming is most strongly reflected in technical characteristics of the engine interest.
It would be desirable to remind and about they be believe, I do not joke – that is necessary to be convinced available fuels of a tank. Practice shows that some inattentive drivers nearly to death torture a starter and the storage battery, having forgotten that before it is necessary to feed and give to drink the good fellow, and then – on a shovel and in the furnace.
At the same time check a tension of driving belts of hinged units of the engine (the pump of system of cooling, the generator, the pump of the power steering, the conditioner). Be convinced that belts do not sag and are not torn off. If everything is all right, shake off trousers and – for a wheel.
Before engine start
Do not hurry up at once to start the engine. Haste here to anything! In the beginning turn a key in the situation "ignition"... As a rule, thus on the dashboard of all modern cars a number of bulbs lights up. At this stage us two especially interest.
The first – a bulb of emergency pressure of the oil, the second – a control lamp подзаряда the accumulator which points to readiness of the generator to get into gear after engine start. Both at the included ignition even before start of the engine should burn with bright red light. And if one of them does not burn? If the bulb подзаряда was not lit, these are half-troubles if the bulb of emergency pressure of oil does not light up is disturbing "call". Be attentive, you lost control over greasing system! Pressure of oil in the engine – the main indicator of serviceability of the unit. Without supervising pressure of oil, you risk to "have" major maintenance of the engine with all that it implies.
The cause of defect consists or in bad contact the plug sensor, or in the sensor. To look for the sensor, as a rule, follows around the oil filter. It is necessary to eliminate malfunction. Only after you were convinced that everything is all right, start the engine.
The serviceable engine with well adjusted systems of supply of fuel and ignition and the serviceable storage battery is started from one attempt within 3–5 seconds. Stably arising problems with "cold" start-up testify to malfunctions. Let's assume, we avoided it, and the engine was started...
We look at the dashboard. Two bulbs about which there was a speech above, are obliged to go out.
After the lapse of several minutes once again try to start the engine. In case of lack of pressure of oil it is necessary to look for the malfunction reason.
Possible reasons: low level of oil, is faulty the sensor of pressure of oil; the grid of a maslopriyemnik of the oil pump is hammered; the oil pump is faulty; big wear of radical and shatunny bearings of a cranked shaft.
If pressure of oil as it should be, we start engine inspection in a warming up mode.
Engine warming up
Frequency of turns of not heated-up engine approximately in 1,5 times exceeds passport frequency of idling, a component usually 700-900 rpm, and should decrease smoothly in process of growth of temperature of the engine.
After the lapse of 7–10 minutes from the moment of start-up the temperature of the engine should reach level about 80 ° With and be stabilized (as well as single turns).
If your car is equipped with the tachometer and the strelochny device showing temperature of cooling liquid, this process is easy for checking.
When warming up proceeds according to the above described scenario, the system of idling and system of cooling of the engine work normally.
If the temperature of the engine does not reach the necessary level the valve thermostat, most likely, is guilty. The reasons of an overheat of the engine much more and they are reflected in the technical reference.
After the engine will enough get warm, and turns of idling are stabilized (you learn about it from indications of control devices), time will come to listen, as the motor sings.
Beautiful, sonorous voice – a healthy organism
Doctors assure that in relation to the person this statement is completely fair. The same it is possible to tell and about the engine.
The serviceable engine publishes a uniform rumble and "ticks", as hours. Some masters say that he "whispers". Despite figurativeness of expressions, you for certain understood that they mean.
If the engine works non-uniformly, with failures, periodically vibrates, know: it testifies to its malfunction. Sometimes malfunctions – a consequence of wear of details of the engine and compression falling in cylinders, but more often the reasons are a leakage of the inlet path, the littered air filter, failures in work of system of ignition and fuel system. It would be desirable to stop on those cases when the engine as speak, "троит", that is one of cylinders does not work.
Using a method of a serial detachment of high-voltage wires from spark plugs, to find "saboteur" simply. As soon as you will get on the faulty cylinder, kind of work of the engine will not change.
Often it is possible to define a cause of defect having examined a spark plug. It allows to learn a lot of the interesting engine about a condition.
It is necessary to mention extraneous noise and knocks. At once we will make a reservation that the similar method of diagnostics is "the highest pilotage" and on forces to not all professionals.
Motorists should mean that any sharp metal sounds testify to a neipravnost. If they are "published" by hinged units (the generator, a pomp, the hydraulic booster) are half-troubles. To define "responsible" for noise it is possible, consistently removing driving belts of these units. If after removal of the next belt the extraneous sound disappeared, shake the corresponding pulley for definition radial and axial люфта bearings. More often they are disturbers of tranquillity.
With much bigger troubles the knocks which are starting with a belly of the motor threaten. They are listened on various power setting by means of an automobile stethoscope or if it is not present, a dry stick in diameter by about 10 mm from firm wood (it press to a cheekbone below an ear lobe). Such way possible to reveal defects of the gas-distributing mechanism, tsilindro-piston group, the krivoshipno-shatunny mechanism.
Once again we will emphasize that to make the diagnosis, ear for music insufficiently, it is necessary to have professional experience and excellent knowledge "матчасти".
A sound mind in a sound body
Diagnostic inspection would be incomplete without the analysis of a dymnost of an exhaust of the car. It is already enough heated-up, so it is a high time to approach to its "loin" and to glance to a horse "under a tail".
The exhaust of the serviceable engine is almost colourless. The exhaust pipe leaves hardly distinguishable easy smoke of the white color which intensity amplifies by sharp pressing a gas pedal.
In frosty weather the serviceable car reserves quite dense clubs of white steam (not to confuse to a smoke!), fuels testifying to full combustion.
Long to inhale exhaust gases – is more expensive. We suppress the engine. But it yet ending. It is necessary to survey an internal surface of a stopper of a maslozalivny mouth. Existence of traces on it the made foam emulsion of lurid color – very disturbing symptom speaking about infiltration in oil of antifreeze. Having uncovered a broad tank or a radiator, survey antifreeze. Attention: to avoid a trauma, to do it it is necessary on the cooled-down engine! An oil film on antifreeze surfaces, the same as the made foam engine oil – harbingers of urgent repair of the engine.
Here, perhaps, and all. We completely surveyed "patient", having walked literally from a nose tip to a tail. Also used at survey not expensive, inaccessible to the majority of motorists the equipment, and that is given us by nature: sight, hearing, sense of smell and, certainly, mysterious "gray substance".
Analysis of a dymnost of an exhaust
Oily ring corbel in width of 6-8 mm on an external surface of an exhaust pipe of the car ("a mourning rim") – a consequence of the raised consumption of oil. Major maintenance of the engine is inevitable.
Smoke of black color
Sign of incomplete combustion of fuel. The power supply system prepares very rich mix and needs adjustment.
Smoke of a gray (violet) shade
Sign of the raised consumption of oil. The engine demands replacement of maslosjemny caps or repair of tsilindro-piston group.
Dense white smoke
Sign of a burn-out of laying of a head of the block of cylinders of the engine. Cooling liquid gets to the combustion chamber.
Smoke with a smell of exhaust gases from the removed branch pipe of system of ventilation of a case (сапуна) the engine
Sign of break of the fulfilled gases in an oil case because of the increased gaps in tsilindro-piston group.